Arizona Disability Insurance Bad Faith and Delegation of Administrative DutiesSeptember 23, 2011 | Disability Claim Denials, Filing Disability Claims
Under the law in Arizona, the relationship between insurer and insured is a special relationship, giving rise to duties not usually found in other contractual agreements. Rawlings v. Apodaca, 151 Ariz. 149, 163, 726 P.2d 565, 579 (1986); Dodge v. Fidelity & Deposit Co., 161 Ariz. 344, 346-47, 778 P.2d 1240, 1242-43 (1989). Courts in Arizona further recognize that an insurer’s duties to its insured are non-delegable and that an insurer remains liable for actions taken by a delegate:
[A]n insurer who owes the legally imposed duty of good faith to its insureds cannot escape liability for a breach of that duty by delegating it to another, regardless of how the relationship of that third party is characterized. Clearly, an insurer may seek assistance by delegating performance of its duty of good faith to non-servants through whatever organizational arrangement it desires. In doing so, however, the insurer cannot give this delegate authority to deprive its insureds of the benefit of the insured’s bargain. If the insurer were allowed to delegate the duty itself, an injured insured would have no recourse for breach of the duty against either the insurer, from whom the duty is owed, or its delegate, with whom the insured has no contractual relationship. Such a result would render a cause of action for breach of the duty virtually meaningless. Thus, we hold that, although an insurer may delegate the performance of its duty of good faith to a non-servant, it remains liable for the actions taken by this delegate because the duty of good faith itself is non-delegable.
Walter v. Simmons, 169 Ariz. 229, 238, 818 P.2d 214, 223 (Ct. App. 1991) (citations omitted) (emphasis added); see also State Farm Mut. Auto. Ins. Co. v. Mendoza, 2006 WL 44376, at *12 (D. Ariz. Jan. 5, 2006) (“Insurers cannot escape their duty of good faith and fair dealing by delegating tasks to third-parties . . . .”) (citing Walter).
To establish a bad faith claim, a Plaintiff must show: (1) that the insurer acted unreasonably toward Plaintiff in the investigation, evaluation or processing of his claim; and (2) that the insurer acted knowingly or with reckless disregard as to the reasonableness of its actions. Leavey v. Unum/Provident Corp., No. CV-02-2281-PHX-SMM, 2006 WL 1515999, at *3 (D. Ariz. May 26, 2006); Zilisch v. State Farm Mut. Auto. Ins. Co., 196 Ariz. 234, 238, 995 P.2d 276, 280 (2000); Acosta v. Phoenix Indem. Ins. Co., 214 Ariz. 380, 153 P.3d 401, ¶ 13 (Ct. App. 2007). Intent can be inferred from the defendant’s conduct. Services Holding Co. v. Transamerica Occidental Life Ins. Co., 180 Ariz. 198, 207, 883 P.2d 435, 444 (Ct. App. 1994) (noting that “the intent requirement of the second element [of a bad faith claim] can be established by conduct”). Moreover, an insurer can be held liable in bad faith for distinct acts of misconduct, regardless of whether the insured’s claim is paid. As the Zilisch court held:
The carrier has an obligation to immediately conduct an adequate investigation, act reasonably in evaluating the claim, and act promptly in paying a legitimate claim. It should do nothing that jeopardizes the insured’s security under the policy. It should not force an insured to go through needless adversarial hoops to achieve its rights under the policy. It cannot lowball claims or delay claims hoping that the insured will settle for less. Equal consideration of the insured requires more than that.
196 Ariz. at 238, 995 P.2d at 280; see also Leavey, 2006 WL 1515999, at *5 (noting that “reasonable jurors could conclude that defendants acted unreasonably in their evaluation and processing of Plaintiff’s claim,” in spite of the fact that the insurer never missed a payment).
The duties of the insurer include the following:
Not to impose requirements on the insured that are not contained in the policy;
To treat the insured fairly and honestly at all times;
Not to try to gain an unfair advantage over the insured;
To give as much consideration to the interests of the insured as its does to its own;
To make claims decisions without regard to profitability;
Not to attempt to influence the opinions of independent medical examiners;
Not to destroy or alter documents to conceal evidence of claim handling;
Not to lie about actions taken on a claim;
To act reasonably in handling the claim;
Not to misrepresent facts or policy provisions to avoid paying benefits;
To reasonably interpret contract provisions;
Not to take unreasonable legal positions;
The above-listed duties remain the liability of the primary insurer and are non-delegable as noted above.
The disability insurance attorneys at Comitz | Beethe provide legal representation to protect the disability benefits of medical and dental professionals nationwide and throughout metropolitan Phoenix, Scottsdale, Tucson, Flagstaff and Yuma. We provide disability income claim advice, assistance with filing disability claims, including completion of disability claim forms and representation in disability insurance litigation.